耶鲁法学院院长2017秋季迎新辞

2018-02-07 17:38:30

核心摘要:耶鲁法学院院长二七年秋季迎新致辞,据文献记载早在年左右这里就开始了正规的法学教育,每年都有一个法学院可以这样形容自己而今年令人高兴的正是我们,听完这一长串列举我想你们暗自在想我来这里究竟是干嘛的。

耶鲁法学院院长2017秋季迎新辞第1篇

耶鲁法学院院长二〇〇七年秋季迎新致辞(zz)

2017-07-30 14:59:32 来自: Hypatia

作者:哈罗德·H·柯(韩裔) 金敏和周丽鹏合译

欢迎来到耶鲁法学院。

我是哈罗德·H·柯,是本院的院长。大家可以叫我哈罗德,别客气。我在耶鲁法学院教程序法和国际法已经有20多个年头了,在纽黑文安家也已有5年了。

如果说这就是我,那么你们呢?作为一个群体,你们是在耶鲁接受法学教育的至少第196批法科学生了。据文献记载,早在1814年左右,这里就开始了正规的法学教育。这比马萨诸塞州最高法院大法官艾萨克·帕克在哈佛建立法学院至少早3年,比普林斯顿建法学院更是早了32年,而后者在6年之后便关闭了。

正如你们会在周二约翰·兰贝教授关于耶鲁大学法学院早期历史的演讲中听到的,法学教育最早在纽黑文出现是在200多年前,一位名叫塞斯·斯台普斯的耶鲁毕业生开始在他位于纽黑文的律师事务所兼学院招收学徒。斯台普斯和他的两位学生――萨缪尔·希区柯克和戴维·戴吉特,他们的肖像现在都挂在127房间――训练那些初涉法律的学徒的大楼,最终成为了耶鲁法学院。

因此,如果你们对随处可见的耶鲁法学院院徽的由来感到好奇,那么我来告诉你们,该徽章的构思是为了纪念这些创建者们:左边是一片棉麻地,是向森斯·斯台普斯致敬*;右边的灰狗是向戴吉特致敬(他最初的姓是道吉特*);最上角是一只短嘴鳄――萨缪尔·希区柯克和他的家族搬往巴哈马群岛后的家徽。

作为来这儿求学的近第200批学生,在你们当中,包括189位来自72个不同本科院校的J D,25位LLM,1位MSL,12位JSD,以及12位交流生。显然,这里汇集了这个星球上最优秀的法科新生。每年,都有一个法学院可以这样形容自己,而今年,令人高兴的,正是我们。你们是最优秀的,不仅仅因为你们的天赋,更重要的是你们的求知欲。

你们来自65个不同的国家,包括不丹、波斯尼亚、缅甸、古巴、卢旺达以及阿联酋等。[1]你们所操的语言不下25种,包括亚兰语、克利沃语、克里奥尔语、叙利亚语、乌尔都语。[2]你们中有35位获得了硕士学位,14人拥有国外的研究员职位,13博士,有8人完成过马拉松,7位记者,6人会(柔道、空手道等)武术,3位做过教师,一位诗人,一位曾与肯伊·韦斯特*同台表演过的饶舌歌手。

你们的同学包括:

艺术家:一名雕塑家;一名动画制作者;一名文身师;一名装饰艺术家。

运动员:一名摔跤选手;一名花样滑冰选手;一名网球国手;一名板球手和一美国国家速滑队队员。

演员:一名滑稽戏演员;一名电影演员;一名杂技演员;一名合唱队员;一名芭蕾舞演员;一位肚皮舞女;一位朋克和重金属乐队的主音吉他手。

你们当中有不少写手:有写过关于乳腺癌的书的;有写影评的;有报道过食物问题的自由记者;有的在《美国体育画报》上发过文;还有的制作了大学代数教学的视频。

你们当中有各种竞赛的优胜者:一人在国际扫雷舰比赛中得了名次;另一人是博彩玩家;还有一人获得了2006世界大学生辩论赛最佳辩手。

你们所从事过的职业包括:和平队***的志愿者、销售员、神职人员、密码分析员、消防员、经营有机农业者、女牛仔、发起一场挑战在学校毕业典礼上祷告的合宪性的诉讼的原告、委内瑞拉小姐选美活动的工作人员、关塔那摩囚犯的翻译。

听完这一长串列举,我想你们暗自在想:“我来这里究竟是干嘛的?”

如果我这么说会让你们感觉好受些,我向你们保证:你们并不孤独。我明白你们此刻的感受。我们之间唯一的不同只是进法学院的时间前后差了30年。跟你们一样,到目前为止,我的一生是幸运的;跟你们一样,我去过一些我连做梦都想不到能去的地方;跟你们一样,我也曾怀疑:我之所以能进耶鲁法学院,是不是由于某个好心人的误判?

但其后我便明白并不存在“误判”这么回事。是你作了一个选择,然后你的努力使之成为了一个正确的抉择。受雇成为联邦最高法院法官助理那天,我问我的继父:“我配吗?”他顿了顿,回答道:“当然不是,没有人理所当然配受雇于联邦最高法院。但如果你竭尽了全力,到卸职时,你将当之无愧。”

因此,关于耶鲁法学院,这就是我要对你们说的:能进耶鲁法学院是极大的荣幸。没有人理所当然配进这儿。但是,如果我们都能做到自己应该做的,如果我们让这个地方成为我们自己的,如果我们竭尽全力使我们的学院提升至崇高的目标,那么我们都将属于这里。

因此,这就是我的第一个信息:今天,标志着我们共同的新旅程的开始。为了证明我确实打算同你们一起上路,请在你们的日历上做个记号,9月8日即下周六上午九点半(如果下雨顺延至9月9日星期天),你们可以邀请你们的院长一块儿去远足。我们将在哈姆登的一个州立公园集合,然后一起登上巨人山的峰顶(这实际上只是一座小山丘,但对于我们这些身处康涅狄格州的人来说,无异于登一座高山)。在峰顶,我们可以拍照,欣赏美景,然后下山吃午饭,共庆我们的新起点。在你们毕业前夕,我们将再度攀登巨人峰。这样,你们在耶鲁法学院的时光将以两度攀登铭记在册。

当你们环视这个大厅时,请你们想一想:每一个坐在这里的人,均有20个人申请你们的位置。相较于我们实际招收的人数,我们的合格申请者要多多了。但由于一个共同的原因,你们被选入这个充满生机的共同体,那就是你们所拥有的独特的才能、观念和活力。

瞧瞧你的左边,再瞧瞧你的右边,你会看到耶鲁法学院现在是并且永远将会是:一个由优秀个体组成的共同体,在你们所做的任何事上都体现出卓越和仁爱。

多少个世纪以来,一届又一届的学生从这里毕业。这个学院一直是一个分享价值的共同体,你们在这里就读期间,会不断地听到我重复这个短语:

一个志同道合的共同体!一个志同道合的共同体!

世界上有很多有价值追求的人,但他不属于任何共同体;同时,也有很多群体,但是他们没有共同的价值观。

正是“志同道合的共同体”这一点使得耶鲁法学院如此的与众不同:对成为最优秀的法律人和学者的共同追求;对与人相处时博爱仁慈的共同追求;以及对无私奉献而不是自私自利的共同追求。

当你们环顾左右时,请记住另一点:在这里,我们相互信赖。在这个法学院,通过与他人的交流对话,我们受益良多。在这里,你将遇见跟你共同度过法学院岁月的人;导引你如何成为一名优秀的法律人的老师;而你初次见面的同学,则将教会你如何做一个正直的人。你的同学将伴你一生:他们会参加你的婚礼;同你一起度假;做你孩子的教父教母;在你生病时照顾你;给你发信和介绍当事;在参议员资格确认时为你作证;乃至在你的葬礼上致悼词。

如果你们依然觉得疑惑:在这里,我应该如何找到自己的路?答案很简单:信任你的同学!此刻,他们是你的同学,但将来,他们会是你的灵魂伴侣。把他们当作你的弟兄姊妹吧!你们汇集在这里,从现在起就相互扶持吧!

这一切听着都很美好,除了一件事:毕竟,你们都是刚进法学院,你的同学跟你一样是初学者,没有人能回答“如何在法学院有个良好的开端”这类困扰你的问题。其实,这类问题并不麻烦。所谓给自己定位就是明白自己的方向,这一周就计划帮助你们找出困惑所在,并找到能帮助你们完成这一过渡的人。我们为每位同学都配备了一名指导老师;我们有杰出的生活指导师Maura Sichol-Sprague;更重要的,我们有一位优秀的辅导老师Sharon Brooks,在不久前他就坐在你们现在坐的位置。这还不是全部。你们慢慢会了解,除了最好的学生和师资外,我们还有世界上最富人性和最具献身精神的管理团队。

你们手中的指南上印有照片,介绍了耶鲁法学院的真正院长们,是他们使得这里正常运转。不过,我很乐意在这里把他们引见给你们:

首先 ,是我们的两位副院长:

Reva Siegel,分管德育的副院长,Nicholas Katzenbach 讲座教授;

Jon Macey,分管课程设置的副院长,Sam Harrs 讲座教授,主讲公司法、公司财务和证券法;

Blair Kaufmann--我们的图书馆馆长

Megan A. Barnett --学院事务长

Toni Hahn Davis --负责毕业及校友等事务

Mark LaFontaine--负责学院的发展工作

Asha Rangappa --负责录取工作

Mark Templeton --负责财务和人力资源

Jan Conroy--负责对外交流

Judith Calvert--负责注册工作

Pat Barnes--负责助学金、奖学金等事宜

他们身后还有许多人,你们会在以后的日子里认识他们。你们可以通过这些新朋友了解法学院是如何实际运作的。他们会告诉你们很多事情,但最重要的,是他们会告诉你这一事实:每个人都有机会去编织一段精彩的法学院经历,因为你们加入了一个支持你们并为你们提供所需资源的共同体。如果你们正困惑于“如何翱翔于法学院”这类问题,我推荐你们去听听下周二Kenji Yoshino教授的午餐会演讲。

鉴于那些具体问题他们会指导你们,所以今天上午我想跟你们探讨的是一个异乎寻常的问题:不是如何学习法律,而是我如何去思考学习法律这件事?这一问题在我们这里被戏称为“元问题”。正如已故的Leon Lipson教授所说:在耶鲁,我们相信你能做任何事,而我将当仁不让。你究竟如何看待这个你刚刚踏入的充满挑战的新世界?这个充满法律和法律话题的世界?

那么,先说愉快的。我的前任古尔多·卡拉布拉西(Guido Calabresi)法官,有一句著名的欢迎辞送给年复一年进入耶鲁的新生们:“朋友们,你们已经告别了苦旅。”在历经多年寒窗苦读后,你们终于进了这里,是的,你们已经进来了!在这里,你们无须再做任何事,除了不断前行。在耶鲁法学院,我们没有什么年级排名之类。每个人都可以在这里取得成功,并且也应该取得成功!

但可悲的是,世界上有太多这样的法律人,在他们的记忆里,进入法学院的那天意味着无休止的激烈竞争的开始。正如耶鲁的校牧威廉·S·考芬(William Sloane Coffin)所说:“记住,即使你赢得了竞争,你也仍然是一个卑鄙小人。”

我希望你们从不同寻常的角度来思索自己的法学院生涯。我希望你们不是把它作为一场竞赛,而是一次探险之旅。

求学耶鲁法学院既然是一次探险之旅,探求的要旨至少包括:

第一,勇于尝试新事物;

第二,理论与实践相结合;

第三,确定你的支点。

请允许我就每一点讲几句。

勇于尝试新事物

首先,要勇于尝试新事物。利用本学院所提供的空间,在知性上去作可贵的自由探索罢!你们不久就会注意到,我们的清规戒律很少。我们的必修课也很少,你们不用为分数而困扰。要最大限度地利用这一自由。不要把时间耗费在重复你明知自己已经会做的事情上,而要勇于去尝试你从未经历过的事物。

如果你是一名不错的写手,那么去尝试公开演讲吧;如果你是一位成功的辩手,那么去加入一个法学刊物吧;如果你是一位诗人,那么多学习法律与经济吧;如果你是一位数学或算术高手,那么去尝试法律与文学吧。进入法学院,不是文科教学的结束,而意味着拓展的开始。暑假期间更应该如此。如果迄今为止你一直生活在美国,那么去试试为非洲的某个人权组织工作;如果你一直想成为一名刑事辩护律师,那么去试试到某位检察官的办公室实习;如果你打定主意做一位公司法领域的律师,那么花上一个夏天去做法律援助工作;凡此,不一一而论。调动你所有的大脑细胞,而不要局限于某一方面。

在耶鲁,跨学科、跨专业、国际化是我们孜孜以求的法学教育方法。这意味着什么?

所谓跨学科的方法,意味着法学这一学科与其他学科之间的联系,其中一些你们在此之前已经学过。法律不是这所伟大的大学唯一的学科。我们法学院有一流的师资队伍,教师们拥有法学的高学位,这毋庸置言,但有些老师同时还拥有哲学、历史学、政治学、心理学、经济学、医药学等领域的高学位。其中两位教授将就他们的专长给你们作讲座。下周五,也就是9月7日,Carol Rose教授将作题为“诗人眼里的法律与经济学”的讲座。与此相映成趣,下周三即9月26日,Jules Coleman教授则会作一个题为“物理学家眼中的法律与哲学”的讲座。

他们会告诉你们透过多棱镜而不是只从一个角度来观察法律。你们的jedi法律训练将从今天下午开始:作为入门系列讲座的序幕,今天下午Bob Ellickson教授将通过纽黑文的镜头向你们描述法律世界;而Bill Eskridge教授则会带你们作一次美国法律体系之旅。更多的讲座会陆续开设:明天下午,John Langbein教授将向你们介绍耶鲁法学院的早期历史,Jean Koh Peters教授会跟你们谈职业伦理问题;周五,Anne Alstott教授将作题为“法律、正义与家庭”的讲座;几周后,两位在各自不同领域取得卓越成就的毕业生将跟你们分享他们的经历:一位是Ben Heineman,世界上最大的公司通用电器(GE)的法律顾问;另一位是Randall Shepard,其家乡印第安纳州的首席大法官。

请别错过这些讲座,这是为在你们的学业之路上投射下新的明灯而精心安排的。你们会发现这些讲座精彩而有益,它们会告诉你们法律与其他领域是如何紧密相联。

除了跨学科,我还提到了跨专业方法。所谓跨专业,我指的是我们并非这所大学里唯一的职业性学院。 你们必须认真思考法律同其他专业的关系,其中一些你们已有所涉猎:如法律与商业、法律与公共卫生、法律与传媒、法律与环境等。法律独特地型塑着这些领域,而这些领域又反过来促进新法的产生。为了引领这些领域,我们需要杰出的双语或双学位的律师,需要博学多才、游刃于这些相关领域的人才。因此,在这各个领域,我们均与耶鲁的其他职业性学院合作开设了交叉课程。

在各行各业,耶鲁法学院的毕业生往往是领袖,这并非偶然。这是因为,如果说耶鲁法律人有一个共同特点的话,这便是创业者所具有的筚路蓝缕的冒险精神,善于抓住每一个机会。我们有关“职业领域的院长计划”安排了一系列讲座,来展示在法律界成就卓著或已然成为其他行业领袖的耶鲁法学院毕业生的风采:诸如娱乐界、体育界、保健业、风险投资业等等,大凡你能列出的各个行当。他们的经历给你的启示便是:学法律并不意味着你必得从事法律业。要想开发自已的所有潜能,你们必须敢于冒险。如果你们――世界上最有天赋的法科学生都没有冒险的勇气,还有谁敢?

一旦进入法律及其相关领域,你必须回归基础,重新学习如何写作,如何阅读。在开头几周,我最重要的建议便是仔细地阅读,比以前更加仔细地阅读。就当你的当事人的命运就寄托于这些法律文书上,相信我,这是真的。当你阅读时,想像写下这些法律意见书的法官们都是有血有肉的人,竭力试图作出真实而公正的判决。换作你,会怎么判?会作出同样的判决吗?在读到某些焦点问题时,我敢说,神奇的时刻将会降临,正如《历史系男生》一书中赫克托老师所描述的那样:

阅读中最美好的时刻,是当你与某些事物――某种思想,某种感触,某种看事物的方式――神交之时,它们是如此的新鲜而特别,却被另一个人记录在这里,这个人你也许从来没见过,或者已经过世很久了。然而此时,仿佛他的手从书中伸出来,握住了你的手。[3]

但仅仅阅读还不够。

这就引出我要向在座诸位讲的第二个建议:理论与实践相结合。

理论与实践相结合

如果你们走进我的办公室――顺便说一句,大家都应该多来,你们会看到在我的墙上挂着一幅中国书法,上面写着我最喜欢的一句格言:“没有实践的理论是灰色的;没有理论的实践是盲目的。”

耶鲁法学院是而且须一直保持世界法学理论重镇的地位。我们相信没有某一门单独的学科能够垄断智慧:这就是何以我们坚持法学院的跨学科办学方向的原因。我们如何使国人遵守法律?这个问题的答案不能仅从法律本身,而应当从哲学、心理学、经济学、社会学、政治学、人类学等相关学科中去寻求。

欲了解法律与正义的关系,你们不能仅仅关注《美国统一商法典》和《联邦民事诉讼规则》,还要关注人性:从诸如莎士比亚的伟大戏剧《亨利五世》、《威尼斯商人》,梅尔维尔的小说《比利·巴德》,毕加索的杰作《格尔尼卡》等等中去寻求。如果你对此尚一无所知,那么花些时间去了解吧。别把时间都花在上网上,或天天泡在法学图书馆里,多去耶鲁的演讲厅,还有新整修的伽利略艺术馆、英国艺术中心、全球中心、麦克米兰国际和区域研究中心。还要走出耶鲁,到埃吉顿公园拜访莎翁,或者去新迦南看看菲利普·约翰逊的玻璃屋,或者去哈特福德参观伍德沃思雅典娜神庙。

学习法律,最重要的是培养思维能力。我院的一位教授曾说:“思维不是蝴蝶,而是捕捉蝴蝶的网。”思维能力帮助你获得洞察力,组织起经验,从潜意识状态中整理出思路。

这就是你们选择一所具有伟大的综合性大学作为依托的伟大的法学院的受益之处。一旦你们开始从事法律实务,你们很快会发现自己很少有时间去阅读,反思,获取新思维。律师事务所没有英文系,法律援助所不会教你经济学。如果你想深入了解什么是正确的,而不仅仅是你的当事人的利益;想明白真相是什么,而不仅仅是辩术,那么你需要学习如何思维,需要学习理论。

“一阴一阳之谓道”。没有实践的理论是灰色的,没有理论的实践是盲目的。仅有理论并不能改变世界,法律人必须熟谙法律技巧才能改变世界。当法官问你为什么你的当事人应该胜诉时,你不能回答:“因为约翰·罗尔斯如此说。”

伟大的法律人是后天养成的,并不是天生的。所以你们每个人都必须修一门或多门我们开设的高质量的实务课程。要利用校内外的各种实习机会,以及暑期实践来更深入地了解如何更好地利用法律技术来改变世界。

纽黑文――这个远离你们家乡的你们的新家――以其无与伦比的魅力,吸引了我。《安克雷奇日报》发起的一次调查显示:全美十佳比萨店,纽黑文占了2 家;托尼奖其中两个奖项的颁奖剧场,落户于此;全美一些最好的音乐会、艺术展和创意展都在这里举行。这里还有伟大的法律传统,关于这一点,你们将在下午鲍勃·埃里克森的讲座中进一步体验。

不过,与我们的目标最相关的,在于纽黑文还是一个法律实务的模范实验室。多年来,耶鲁法学院的学生帮助单亲妈妈建立了托儿中心;通过开设非营利公司庇护无家可归的人;开办了一个优秀的公立学校和一家社区银行;为瓦莱街上的“萧记”杂货店提供法律援助。30年前,2位同窗曾一起参加了法律诊所课程,他们都认为这是他们在耶鲁法学院求学期间最为受益的经历。他们一位是比尔·克林顿,另一位是克拉伦斯·托马斯。既然他们可以做到,并从中得益,那么你们也可以。

在我们的法律诊所,我们进行本土化的思考,但我们的行动却是全球化的。我们不会将我们法律诊所的事务局限于纽黑文。多年以来,我们的人权事务诊所改善了全世界的人权状况。它曾代表海地和古巴难民在最高法院出庭;揭露发生于东帝汶的暴行;派遣学生去波斯尼亚、科索沃、塞拉利昂和柬埔寨;协助海牙国际检察官的工作;共同探讨伊拉克民主宪制的架构。去年,由耶鲁毕业生、教授和学生组成的我们的第11诊所的9名成员,参与了联邦最高法院就关塔那摩Boumediene案件所进行的各项调查取证,并整理出了数本案情概要,此案将会在今年秋天进入法庭辩论阶段。

我们的“小额信贷”组在墨西哥与利比里亚投入了大量的时间和精力。我们的联邦最高法院诊所关注的好几个案件已列入9月份联邦最高法院的案件日程表。而今年夏天,国土安全部的一次搜捕行动逮捕了20多位当地劳工,一年级的学生们放下手头的一切,代表他们中的每一个人出席驱逐出境的听证会,我们的“劳工和移民人权诊所”至今仍在进行这项工作。这些同学并不待进入法律界之后才致力于正义。

这便引出了我们今天所面临的问题:全球化和正义――是全球的而不仅仅是局部的正义。正如我前面所说的,你们的法学教育不仅应该是跨学科、跨专业的,而且应该是国际化的。在第一个学期,你们将会学习程序法、合同法、侵权法和宪法。让我向你们透露一个秘密:这些课程都不难学。

说到底,什么是程序法,不就是解决争端的法律?什么是侵权法,不就是探讨第三人之间的义务关系?什么是合同法,不就是合意各方之间的义务?什么是宪法,不就是关于政府权力的划分、公民相对于其政府的权利和义务?不过如此!余下的无非是细节而已。这些课程跟我30年前开始学习法律时并没什么不同。

然而,你们成长的年代,正值1989年柏林墙和2001年双子塔倒塌,全球化风起云涌。一开始,我们对全球化的种种可能性充满乐观。我们迈入了一个24小时/7天都充斥着新闻、手机、因特网、全球金融、即时资讯的世界。但是在“9.11”以后,我们从全球化光芒四射的眩晕中走出,进入了全球化时代的阴影中。“9.11”事件残酷地提醒我们:被用以增进全球市场化、全球联系、全球管理和全球权益的同样技术,也可能被恐怖分子利用来杀戮无辜的平民,策划恐怖袭击和洗钱。在“9.11”过后,人们开始追问我称之为“蒂娜·特纳式的问题”:法律与之有什么关系?法律是否一个甜蜜却又过时的概念?我们正处于战时!

事实上,正如我们所看到的,法律与一切均有关系。甚至在反恐战争中,联邦最高法院提醒我们,政府必须遵守战争法。仅就美国联邦最高法院最近的4个开庭期来看,至少有25个重大案件涉及到全球化。在这个开庭期,联邦最高法院的案件日程表上,包括了关塔那摩未决囚犯案件和Madellin案件,后一案件涉及墨西哥籍死刑犯的权利,按照《维也纳领事权公约》本应协商解决。

我希望你们能同我一起思考有关法律与全球化问题的三个方面:“全球化的法律”(the law of globalization)、“作为全球化的法律”(the law as globalization)、“全球化中的法律”(the law in globalization)。

关于“全球化的法律”,我指的是:将涉及全球性的法律作为一个独特的学科来研究,包括诸如人权、国际贸易、环境法、网络法和国际商务等各个方向。关于“作为全球化的法律”,我指的是:认识到正如资讯和文化的全球交流一样,法律的全球传播标志着全球化时代的到来。关于“全球化中的法律”,我指的是:思考法治在提升人道的全球化过程中所能扮演的角色。

当年我进法学院时,我们被告知有这样一种叫做“矩阵”(matrix)的分类模型,将国内法与国际法相分离;将私法与公法相分离。但难道我们都不明白“矩阵”只是一种理论预设,一种我们强加于远为复杂的现实世界的人为的两分法?

在一个全球化的时代,公法与私法、国际法与国内法的界限越来越模糊。在今天这个时代,公制计量单位是一个国内法上的还是国际法上的概念? http://www.yhhpx.com 是一个公法上的还是私法上的概念?答案当然是你不能作这么简单的分类。这些都是跨国界的概念,在国际层面上被认识,同时也为世界各国所承认。今天,跨国界的法律概念随处可见,如“信用证”、“风险投资公司”、“隐私”、“酷刑”等等。这些跨国界的概念,不只是耶鲁法学院,而且世界各地的法学院都在教。

显然,思考法律和全球化之间的关系是毕生的事。但请从9.27-29日开始吧,届时,将有20位国际上知名的宪法法院法官,包括美国联邦最高法院大法官安东尼·肯尼迪(Anthony Kennedy)和斯蒂芬·布赖耶(Stephen Breyer)都会来到这里,讨论各国法院现在如何处理此类多样性问题,并探讨一些全球共同面临的问题,如生育权、作证行为、恐怖主义以及同性婚姻等。

这些讨论不仅需要你去思考这些问题,还要看你究竟站在哪一边。这便把我的话题引向今天我要对你们说的第三个也是最后一个问题:确定你的支点。

确定你的支点

对你们中的许多人而言,迄今为止,人生的抉择原则不外乎:奉行自由选择。我相信你们当中的许多人进法学院正是如此。事实上,如果有哪条墓志铭适合你们这一代,那么一定是:“他们至死奉行自由选择。”

我大学毕业准备去英国做访问学者时,一位世交特地赶来参加我的毕业典礼并祝贺我的“成就”。我大姐礼貌地等那位世交离开后,才问我:“什么成就?你什么成就都没有。你无非就是会念书而已1“有许多人没上过什么学却成就非凡;但也有些人受了世界一流的教育却一事无成。 两者的差别就在于那些事业有成者明白他们为什么而奋斗。”

哲学家约翰·罗斯金曾经说过:“人劳碌一生,其最高奖赏不在于他从中获得了什么,而在于他藉此成为了一个什么样的人。”同样,作为一名法科学生,对你的辛苦努力的最高奖赏将是你会成为一个怎样的人,怎样的法律人。而这意味着追问:什么是我的支点?你会为了什么而奉献一生?在接下来的三年里及此后,你应该每天问自己这一问题,因为正如威廉·S·考芬所说的:“如果你没有任何支点,那么你将随时跌倒。”

今天,此时此刻,就是一个良好的契机开始问自己:什么是我的支点?我为什么进法学院?我要成为一个什么样的人,什么样的法律人?我知道,在你们的175字的入学申请中你们已经写过这些,并适足以让你们入学。但从今天起,你们要诚实地追问并回答这一问题。

当你们沉思这一问题时,我希望你们停止问“怎样使他们满意”,而是开始问:“怎样使我自己满意?”我希望你们追问:“什么样的案件,什么样的理由,什么样的当事人,才会触及我的心灵?”

当这样的时刻来临时,要紧紧抓住这一时刻,这一契机,不要让它悄悄溜走。因为就在彼时,你将确定你的真正的而不是那些似是而非的支点。

一个法律人仅仅倚仗法律技巧是不够的。你必须追问:我的技巧是为谁服务的?在明天琼·柯·彼得斯(Jean Koh Peters)教授的职业伦理导论课上你们将面对这一问题(她是我的另一个姐姐)。

在耶鲁法学院,你们将会渐渐获得什么呢?你们将逐步掌握法律技巧:这些技巧会让你们有本事把人们扔进监狱;挽救或者毁灭人们的生命;就天文数字的标的提出理据等等。但正如我们所知道的,巨大的力量也意味着巨大的责任。这类技巧和工具都有其时空(的限制)。因此,运用交叉讯问的绝技去扳倒对方证人,但跟你的同屋交谈时抛开它吧。

你们会在你们的配置中发现以往耶鲁学生所没有的新的有力工具。在互联网时代,我们都被联在一起。创造性地使用这些工具吧,如作为充满激情的辩护士,正如我们的学生在称作《达尔福尔24小时》的视频网站上所做的那样。

请别滥用技术的巨大力量去攻击在线的他人,侵犯别人的隐私,或将你的同学作为恶作剧的靶子。在这里,技术不得僭越共同体。我们致力于挑战成见,但须建立在相互尊重的基础之上。记住你的职业生涯始于今天,你在此所作的选择将影响你的职业声誉。当“品行和操守委员会”决定是否接纳你进入业界时,不但要考察你的法律职业素养,还要考量你在执业过程中的行为是否正当、道德。你们所发送的每一封email,你们所开设的每一个博客都会留下文字痕迹;你们所公开散布的有关你们自己和他人的所有信息将永久记录下你们的品行。

所以,请记住一句朝鲜族谚语:“永远别让你的技巧胜过你的品德。”在接下来的几年里,你们的技巧将突飞猛进,但千万要记住让你们的品德行在头里。

这就引出了我的最后的忠告:在求索自己为什么而奋斗的同时,也请深入地思考一下如何服务于社会的福祉。你将如何为公众的利益作出贡献?你将投身于怎样的公益事业?

耶鲁法学院是一个致力于公共利益的独特的法学院,并造就了为形塑公共利益作出独特贡献的法律人。在接下来的三年里,请问一下你自己:如何将我毕生的精力奉献于我心目中的公共福祉?

你将为谁服务?谁最需要你?当你为自己获得了良好的教育机会深感庆幸时,难道你就没有义务――即便你仍在法学院求学――服务于那些最为弱势者?

所以请好好考虑一下:作为一个法律人,我这一生应该如何度过?我将在9月21日就此题目作一个专门的讲座。这个讲座不会给你们答案,但会探索这一问题。而我敢说,这一问题会萦绕你们终生。

简言之,这就是我今天要向你们说的:

你应该如何认识耶鲁法学院?

·视其为探索之旅,而不是竞技常

·视其为寻求先进的知识、卓越的职业技能和公共福祉的共同体。

·视其为一个相互信赖的所在。

·视其为这样一个所在:从中你将通过跨学科、跨专业、国际化的方法学习法律,并深入地思考全球化、法律职业和公共福祉等问题。

·视其为这样一个所在:从中,你将尝试新事物,学习新观念,理论与实践相结合,并确定你的支点。从中,你不但将获得新的能力,而且将学会如何负责任地运用之。

今天,是你们踏入法学领域的第一课。不过,就象你们当中那些热爱音乐的同学所认识到的,伟大的音乐超越五线谱上的音符,法律也超越文本:它是一种生活,是巡回演出,充满了戏剧性、哀婉和激情。在法律中,正如在生活中,有英雄也有恶棍;有先知也有白痴。

今天,你们要开始问自己:你将成为怎样的人?

我期望你们成为领路人而不仅仅是追随者,一个创制者而不仅仅是代笔者。我期望你们去理解法律在一个全球化的世界中所扮演的角色,将法律作为一个高尚的职业来追求,投身于法律事业是为了公共福祉而不是自利。勇往直前吧,我们的期望很简单:让我们看到最好的你们――那既是你们至多能给的,也是你们至少可以给的。而我们,也将回报以我们最好的一面。

作为你们的院长,我向你们保证:在这里,看重的是观念而非意识形态。我们没有任何党派的分界。因此,无论你信奉什么,你都可以坚持并为之据理力争。我承诺,在涉及诸如政治和个人信仰的问题上,我将严守中立。

但我也要提醒你们:当面对的是法与正义的问题时,我不会中立;当政府――包括我们自己的政府――卷入迫害时,我不会中立;当事涉偏狭和歧视时,我也不会中立。

这是因为,有一种人权的传统深深地根植在这个院里。60年前,当我们的一些热烈鼓吹公民自由权的人士支持把日侨关进拘留营时,尤金·罗斯托夫,一位保守的院长,却公开谴责这是一嘲灾难”。在紧接着的那十年,前院长、法官卢·波洛克在Brown vs. Board一案中与瑟古特·马歇尔及耶鲁同事查尔斯·布莱克并肩作战。在上世纪70年代,汤姆·埃默森教授在Grisword v Connecticut 一案中为人权而战;而阿列克西·毕克尔教授则为媒体披露五角大楼文件的新闻自由而战。在你们所处的时代,学生和教师则为所有学生――同性恋者和异性恋者一视同仁地――的参军权而斗争。

你们所进入的耶鲁法学院并非是一个仅仅为现实辩护的法学院。你们的法学院――耶鲁法学院――一向是一个为应然而斗争的法学院。

作为一名从事人权法的法律人,我曾经到过世界各地。在此过程中,我所见到的有好有坏。就坏的一面说,迫害是真实存在的,并不限于CNN的报道。在世界各地――在苏丹,在北朝鲜,在新奥尔良,甚至就在康涅狄克,在纽黑文――人们正在遭受的迫害是如此触目惊心,令人不忍卒睹。

不过,也有好消息。而这正与法律人相关,与有良知的法律人更为相关。一个人的努力就可以带来一点变化。而一群法律人可以击败一支军队。但要作出改变,你不但要具备能力,还需要理念;不仅要学业优异,而且要富有人性;不仅需要理论,还需要行动。

在这里,在耶鲁法学院,我们所倡导的是:只会读书而缺乏人性是无益的;成功而没有人性是可悲的。当你们离开耶鲁时,我们希望你们回想起耶鲁时不仅视其为一个接受法学教育的地方,而且是一个你从中找到了道德指南的所在。

总而言之,你们今天进入的地方,是伟大的诗人谢默斯·希尼所称的“良知共和国”:

希尼写道:

当我降落在良知共和国

引擎关闭之后 万籁俱寂

能听到跑道上空麻鹬的叫声

没有脚夫,没有通事,没有的士

你自负行囊,不久

你不可一世的优越感将会消失

在就职典礼上,共和国的领袖

须宣誓拥护不成文法律,含着泪水

为他们曾经的傲慢请罪

坚定他们的信念――一切生命源自

天神泪中的盐份

那是天神梦见他的

无尽的孤独之后

落下的泪水

[当]我自素朴的共和国返回

[一位]老人起身,凝视着我的脸庞

他说那是正式的认可

如今我已拥有了双重国籍

他希望我回乡后

将自己视作一位大使

以我的喉舌代之发言

他说,他们的使馆无所不在

却又各自独立

并且所有的大使都将永不免职[4]

良知共和国的公民们,欢迎你们来到耶鲁法学院!无数的事情有待于我们一起去做。那么,让我们从现在做起!

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1]包括澳大利亚*、奥地利、贝宁、不丹、巴西*、波斯尼亚、缅甸、加拿大*、智利*、中国、哥斯达黎加、克罗地亚*、古巴、捷克*、多米尼加、厄瓜多尔、埃及、英格兰、法国、德国*、加纳、希腊*、危地马拉、海地、匈牙利、印度*、以色列*、意大利*、牙买加、日本、约旦、肯尼亚、朝鲜*、科索沃*、马达加斯加、马拉维、马里、马来西亚*、墨西哥、莫桑比克、纳米比亚、荷兰、新西兰、尼加拉瓜、巴基斯坦*、巴拿马、秘鲁、菲律宾、葡萄牙、卢旺达、苏格兰、塞内加尔、新加坡、南非、韩国、西班牙、瑞士*、台湾、阿拉伯联合酋长国、美国*、委内瑞拉、越南和津巴布韦。LLM班的学生来自上述19个打*号的国家和地区。

[2]你们中间有人能够读和说的语言包括:古希腊语、阿拉伯语、亚兰语、粤语、捷克语、英语、法语、德语、海地克里奥尔语、希伯来语、北印度语、匈牙利语、意大利语、朝鲜语、克利沃语、拉丁语、中国普通话、葡萄牙语、旁遮普语、俄语、西班牙语、叙利亚语、乌尔都语、意第绪语。

* 美国著名饶舌歌手。――译者著

**由美国肯尼迪总统发起的和平队,成员主要有医生、工程师等,志愿到发展中国家提供技术服务。――译者注

[3] Alan Bennett, The History Boys 56.

[4] "From the Republic of Conscience," from Opened Ground: Selected Poems of Seamus Heaney.

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耶鲁法学院院长2017秋季迎新辞第2篇

(MP3)附英文文本 2017-04-04 22:15| (分类:法学教育)

中文翻译:

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欢 迎 光 临 法律硕士的人生 的博客 首页| 法律文摘(7)| 读书笔记(6)| 心灵独白(6)| 全部日志·(MP3)附英文文本发表时间:2017-11-4 22:25:00阅读次数:335

在法博上看到,英语听力不大好,于是找到英文原文对着听

Dean’s Welcoming Speech

Harold Hongju Koh

Yale Law School

August 27, 2017

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耶鲁大学法学院院长在开学典礼上的致辞(转)发表时间:2017-11-15 7:34:00阅读数次: 131

Welcome to Yale Law School!

I am Harold Koh, and I am the Dean here. Please call me Harold. I really mean that.I have taught Procedure and International Law here for more than two decades, and I have called New Haven home for nearly five.

If that is who I am, who are you?You, collectively, are the 197th group of law students to receive your legal education here at Yale. Formal legal education began here in New Haven around 1814, at least three years before Chief Justice Isaac Parker of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts founded a law school up at Harvard, and 32 years before a law school was founded down at Princeton, which closed its doors only six years later.

As you will hear this afternoon, when Professor John Langbein tells you about the early history of Yale Law School, legal education first came here more than 200 years ago, when a Yale college graduate named Seth Staples and two of his students—Samuel Hitchcock and David Daggett, all

of whose portraits now hang in Room 127—started to teach budding lawyers in the New Haven building that became Yale Law School.(Parenthetically, that explains the seal of the Yale Law School that is now your shield: which honors these founders with a field of Staples on the left, in honor of Seth

Staples; a greyhound on the right in honor of David Daggett (whose original family name was Doget); and an alligator on top— which Samuel Hitchcock and his family took as their symbol after the family moved to the Bahamas.) You, nearly the 200th claever to study here, include 189 entering JD

students from 77 undergraduate institutions, 28 LLMs, 7 new JSD students, 14 transfer students, and several visiting students. You are, quite simply, the finest group of entering law students assembled anywhere on this planet this year. Each year, one school in this world gets to say that, and this year, happily, it is us. You are the best, not just because you are so able, but because you are so interesting.

Collectively, you have lived or worked in 77 countries; you read and speak at least 30 languages. (Take a look at this map). Your classmates include: A Chinese yo-yo artist, a hip-hop dancer; a certified judge for the Kansas City Barbeque Society; a scholar of Korean soap opera; a firefighter; a member of the College Football Hall of Fame; winner of 2017 The New Yorker Cartoon Caption Contest; a former Brazilian professional soccer player; a sailor who twice crossed the Atlantic; the youngest university

graduate in the history of Germany; and the leader of the cymbal section of a marching band that once played at the Vatican.

By the numbers, your group includes:

1 Flamenco dancer

2 Military officers

2 Debate champions

2 Competitive skydivers

3 Radio talk show hosts

4 Black belts in martial arts

4 Eagle Scouts

5 Mountain climbers, including 2 who climbed Mt. Kilimanjaro

A television producer who won 5 Emmy awards

7 Marathon runners

And a partridge in a pear tree. :-)

Now hearing this litany, I know what you are saying: “So what on

earth am I doing here?”

If it makes you feel better, let me assure you that you are not alone.I know just how you feel. The only difference between you and me is that we started law school 30 years apart. Like you, until now, I have been lucky in my career. Like you, I have been to places I’ve never dreamed I could go. And like you, I have sometimes wondered whether I got to where I am at Yale Law School because somebody well meaning made the wrong decision.

But what I have learned over time is that there is no such thing as a wrong decision. There is the decision that you make, then what you do to make it the right decision. On the day I was invited to clerk for the Supreme Court, I asked my late father: “Do I deserve this?” He paused, and answered, “Of course not. No one deserves to clerk for the Supreme Court. But if you give it your best, by the time you are done, you will have deserved it.”

So that is what I say to you about Yale Law School: To be at Yale Law School is a very great privilege. None of us really deserves to be here. But if we all do what we have to do, if we make this place our own, if we do our best and force our school to live up to its own highest aspirations, then all of us will belong here.

So that is my first message: today marks the start of our journey together. To prove that I really do intend to journey with you, please mark your calendars for a week from this Saturday—Sept. 6—when you can tell the Dean to take a hike, then actually go with him. We will gather at a state park in Hamden and hike to the top of Sleeping Giant mountain (it is actually a foothill, but for us in Connecticut, it’s as close as we get to a mountain). At the top, we will take pictures, survey the landscape, then hike

back down for lunch to celebrate our new beginning.

As you look around this room, consider this fact: for each of you sitting here, 20 others applied for your place.We have far more qualified applicants than we can accept, but you were selected for a reason. You were chosen to be a part of this dynamic community because of the unique talents, ideas, and energy that you possess.

So look to your left; look to your right. You see what Yale Law School is, and must always be: a community of remarkable individuals, committed to excellence and humanity in everything you do.

From century to century, from clato class, this School has remained a community of commitment to the values we share. In your time here, you will hear that phrase from me often:

A community of commitment.A community of commitment.

There are many committed individuals who belong to no communities. There are many communities that share no commitments.

But what makes the Yale Law School a special law school is that it is a community of commitment: commitment to the highest excellence in our work as lawyers and scholars, commitment to the greatest humanity in our dealings with others, and commitment to lives genuinely devoted not to

selfishness, but service.

As you look to your left and right, please remember one more thing: this is a place where we are committed to each other. At this school, you will learn best through dialogue with one another. The people who will get you through here; the people who will teach you most about how to be a good lawyer and how to be a good person are the classmates you meet for the first time today. Your classmates will stay with you throughout your lives. They will attend your wedding, join your vacations, serve as godparents of your children, watch over you in illness, send you emails and clients, vouch for you at your Senate confirmations, and speak at your funeral.

So if you are wondering: how am I going to make my way here? The answer is simple: Trust your classmates. Right now they are your classmates; but in time, they will be your soulmates. Think of them as your brothers- and sisters-in-law. You are all in this together, and the time to start supporting one another is right now.

Now all of this sounds fine, except for one thing: when it comes to Law School, your classmates are novices, too. None of them can answer the questions that cloud your mind: like, how do I get off to a good start in law school?

Well, those are relatively easy questions. Getting oriented is what orientations are for, and this week is designed to help you figure out where things are, and who can help you solve your transition problems.Each of you is assigned to a Dean’s Advisor; let me ask them all to stand up:

Yaw Anim

BJ Ard

Sipoura Barzideh

Jennifer Bennett

Lauren Chamblee

Caroline Edsall

Elliot Morrison

Christina Parajon

Sergio Perez

Sujeet Rao

In our Office of Student Affairs, we have a wonderful Dean of Students in Sharon Brooks; a marvelous Student Life Coordinator, Maura Sichol- Sprague; Sachi Rodgers, Special Project Coordinator in charge of Student Organizations; Marie Battista, Senior Administrative Assistant; and Joe Lynch, Student Journals Assistant.

As you will learn, in addition to having the best students and faculty in the world, we have the most humane and dedicated administrative staff in the world. The real Deans of Yale Law School, the Administrative Deans who make this place run, are pictured at the front of your facebook, but let me introduce some of them now.

First, our two deputy deans:

Reva Siegel, Deputy Dean for Intellectual Life and the Nicholas Katzenbach Professor of Law;

Jon Macey, Deputy Dean for Curriculum and Sam Harris Professor of

Corporate Law, Corporate Finance and Securities Law;

Our Librarian, Professor Blair Kaufmann, and:

Megan A. Barnett Dean for Academic Affairs

Toni Hahn DavisDean for Alumni and Public Affairs

and the Graduate Program

Mark LaFontaine Dean for Development

Asha Rangappa Dean of Admissions

Mark TempletonDean for Finance & Human Resources

Mike Thompson Dean for Facilities

Jan ConroyDirector of Communications

Judith Calvert Registrar

Pat Barnes Director of Financial Aid

4

Behind them stand many, many others whom I encourage you to meet personally. You will spend much of the days ahead learning from these new friends how the school really operates.They will tell each of you that you have the opportunity to craft an extraordinary law school experience, because you have joined a supportive community that will offer you the resources you need.

Let me spend my time this morning discussing a somewhat different question: not how do I study law? But how do I think about studying law? That is what we like to call here: the meta question. As the late Professor Leon Lipson once said, “At Yale, we believe that anything you can do, I can do meta.” How exactly do you think about this brave new world that you are entering? This world of Law and Law Talk?

Well, first, the good news. As my predecessor, Dean Guido Calabresi, famously told the entering claeach year, “My friends, you are off the treadmill now.” After years of carefully triangulating your course to get to this place, you’ve made it! You don’t have to do anything here just to get ahead. Here at Yale Law School, we have no clarank. All of you can succeed here. All of you should succeed here.

But sadly, there are too many lawyers in this world who remember the day they started law school as the day they began the rat race. But in the words of Yale’s chaplain, William Sloane Coffin: “Remember that even if you win the rat race, you are still a rat.”

I ask you to think about your law school career differently. I ask you to think about it, not as a competition, but as an adventure.

Yale Law School is an adventure, which should have at least three elements:

First, trying new things.

Second, combining theory with practice.

Third, deciding what you stand for.

Let me say a word about each.

First, trying new things.Experimentation. Explore the rare intellectual freedom that this school offers. We have very few rules. We have minimal required curriculum. Make the most of that freedom.Don’t spend your time repeating things you already know you can do. Instead, try things you’ve never tried.

So if you are a good writer, try public speaking. If you are an accomplished debater, join a law journal. If you are a poet, study law and economics. And if you are a mathematician or number cruncher by training, take law and literature. By entering law school, you are not ending your education in the liberal arts; you are extending it.

The same goes for your summers. If you have lived your whole life in the States, work for a human rights group in Africa. If you always wanted to be a criminal defense lawyer, try working in a prosecutor’s office. If you are convinced you want to be a corporate lawyer, spend a summer doing legal aid, and vice versa.Exercise all your intellectual muscles, not just one.

At Yale, we intend our approach to legal education to be interdisciplinary, interprofessional, and international. What does that mean?

By an interdisciplinary approach, we mean to show you how the intellectual discipline of law connects with other academic disciplines, some of which you studied before you got here. Law is not the only discipline in this great university. We have a great law faculty, whose members hold advanced degrees in law, of course; but many also hold advanced degrees in philosophy, history, political science, sociology, economics, and medicine. Two of these professors will deliver introductory lectures on their subjects of specialty. Tomorrow afternoon, Professor Jules Coleman will give an introductory lecture on “law and philosophy for physicists.” On September 2, Professor Carol Rose will give an introductory lecture on “law and economics for poets.”

They will ask you to start viewing the law through many lenses, not just one. That will begin this afternoon, when you hear the first two lectures in our Introductions series, from Professor Bill Eskridge, who will give you a tour of the American legal system, and Professor John Langbein who will introduce you to the history of legal education and the Yale Law School. Those will be followed later this week by lectures tomorrow on professional responsibility by Professor Jean Koh Peters; and on Friday, Sept. 5, on

public interest law by Professor Brett Dignam. And in the weeks ahead, you will also hear from two accomplished graduates of our school who made their mark in different fields: one, Ben Heineman, who became corporate counsel of one of the largest economies in the world, the General Electric Co., speaking on values and vision in legal practice, and another, Margaret Marshall, who was born in South Africa, but after her JD here became Chief Justice of her home state of Massachusetts.

Please attend these introductions.They are designed to cast new light on your coursework. You will find them fascinating and useful in seeing how law relates to other concepts in the world of ideas.

In addition to being interdisciplinary, I mentioned that our approach is interprofessional. By interprofessional, we mean that we are not the only professional school in this university.You should think hard about how the profession of law relates to these other professions, some of them

professions in which you have already engaged: law and business, law and public health, law and media, and law and the environment.Law shapes these fields, and these fields generate new law. To lead these fields, we need lawyers who are genuinely bilingual, who are versatile enough to lead these coordinate fields, so in each of these areas, we are developing joint programs with the other professional schools here at Yale.

It is not an accident that in each of these other professional fields, graduates of Yale Law School are leaders as well. That is because if there is one common feature of Yale Law graduates, it is their entrepreneurial spirit, their willingneto take chances. The Dean’s Program on the Profession is a

speaker series that features Yale Law School graduates who have made a special mark within the law or who have moved outside the law to become leaders of the entertainment field, the health care industry, professional sports, venture capital, you name it. What their careers tell you is that just because you are studying law, it does not mean that a lawyer is all you will ever be. To explore your full potential, they will tell you, you must take risks. And if you, the most privileged law students in the world, don’t have

the courage to take risks, who else will?

In entering law and its related fields, you will need to learn how to write again, and you will need to learn how to read again.The most important suggestion I can make is to read closely. Read more closely than you have read before. Read like your client’s life depends on it, because

believe me, it will. And as you read, think of the judges who wrote those opinions as real people, trying to make real decisions. Imagine how you would have made those decisions had they been yours to make. And at some point, I assure you, the magic moment will come, described this way by Hector in The History Boys:

The best moments in reading are when you come acrosomething—athought, a feeling, a way of looking at things—which you had thought special and particular to you. Now here it is, set down by someoneelse, a person you have never met, someone even who is long dead. And it is as if a hand has come out and taken yours.1

But reading alone is not enough.

Which leads me to my second suggestion, in all you do here: Combine

Theory with Practice

When you come to my office, as all of you should, you will see on my

wall, in Chinese characters, one of my favorite sayings: "Theory without

practice is as lifeleas practice without theory is thoughtless."

1 Alan Bennett, The History Boys 56. Yale Law School is and must always remain the world’s premier

center of legal theory. We believe that no single intellectual discipline has a monopoly on wisdom: that is what it means to be an interdisciplinary law school. How do we get nations to obey the law? The answer to that question lies not just in the law itself, but in such related disciplines as psychology, economics, philosophy, sociology, political science, anthropology.

But if you want to understand the relationship between law and justice, you must look not just to the Uniform Commercial Code and the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure but to the humanities: great plays like Shakespeare’s Henry V or The Merchant of Venice, novels like Melville’s Billy Budd, or works of art like Picasso’s Guernica. If you don’t know those disciplines, use your time here to introduce yourselves to them. Spend your time not just in our phenomenal Law Library, but at Yale Repertory Theater, the newly renovated Art Gallery, the Center for British Art, the Globalization Center, and the Macmillan Center for International and Area Studies.

Most of all, the study of law is the search for ideas. A professor of mine once said, “Ideas are not butterflies. They are butterfly nets.” Ideas help you to capture insights, organize experience, impose intellectual order on natural disorder.

Which is why you chose to attend a great law school in a great university. Once you begin practicing law, you soon find yourself with precious little time to read, reflect, or get new ideas. Law firms have no English departments.Legal aid clinics don’t teach you economics. If you want to understand more deeply what is right, not just what is right for your client, what is the truth, not just what argument works, you need to study ideas. You need to study theory.

But for every yin there is a yang. Theory without practice is as lifeless, as practice without theory is thoughtless. Theory alone cannot change the world; lawyers must actually be skilled in the practice of law to change the world.When the judge asks you why your client should win, your answer cannot be, “Because John Rawls said so.”

Great lawyers are made, not born. Which is why each and every one of you should take a course or more in our superb clinical program. Use internships, externships, and summer practice to understand better how you can use your legal skills to change the world.

Which brings me to the subtle virtues of New Haven, your new home away from home. A poll in the Anchorage Daily Times reported that New Haven has two of the top ten pizza restaurants in America. It is the home of two Tony-award winning theaters. Some of the best music and the best arts

and ideas festival in the country. And it has a remarkable legal history.

But most relevant for our purposes, New Haven is a model laboratory for the practice of law.Over the years, Yale law students have helped to build day care centers for unwed mothers, to create nonprofit corporations to shelter the homeless, to found a leading Charter School and community bank, to do the legal work for the Shaw’s Grocery Store on Whalley Ave. Three decades ago, two contemporaries both worked in the clinical program here; each said it was the best experience they had at Yale Law School. Their names are Bill Clinton and Clarence Thomas. If each of them can do it, and get something out of it, then so can you.

In our clinic, we think locally, but we act globally. We do not limit our clinical work to the confines of New Haven. Over the years, our human rights clinic has promoted human rights around the world. It has represented Haitian and Cuban refugees at the Supreme Court, exposed abuses in East Timor, sent students to Bosnia and Kosovo and Sierra Leone and Cambodia, supported international prosecutors in The Hague, and helped think about the structure of constitutional democracy in Iraq. Yale graduates, professors and students in our 9/11 Clinic participated on all sides of Supreme Court’s military commissions decision last year, and filed several of the briefs in Boumediene, the Guantanamo case that will be argued this fall. Our Supreme Court Clinic has several cases pending on the Supreme Court’s September docket list. And when Homeland Security arrested two dozen workers this summer, first-year students dropped everything to represent each and every one of them at expedited bond hearings, and our Workers and Immigrants Rights Clinic continues that work today.

That brings me, of course, to the issue of our day:globalization. As I said, your legal education should be not just interdisciplinary and interprofessional, but international. In the last four terms of the U.S. Supreme Court, no fewer than 25 cases involved globalization. On Friday morning, I will give you an introduction to transnational law that I hope will start you thinking about the relationship between law and globalization. And later this September, 20 of the world’s leading constitutional court judges, including Justices Anthony Kennedy and Stephen Breyer of our Supreme Court, will come to this building to talk about how the world’s leading courts now deal with such diverse, yet common, global issues as torture, reproductive rights, affirmative action, terrorism, and same-sex marriage. These issues occupy our headlines. And what presidential candidate recently wrote this?

9

“We Americans recall the words of our founders in the declaration of

independence, that we must pay ‘decent respect to the opinions of

mankind.’ Our great power does not mean we can do whatever we

want whenever we want, nor should we assume we have all the

wisdom and knowledge necessary to succeed…We all have to live up

to our own high standards of morality and international responsibility.

We cannot torture or treat inhumanely the suspected terrorists that we

have captured. We will fight the terrorists and at the same time defend

the rights that are the foundations of our society.”2

The speaker, of course, was John McCain, speaking in Europe.

And we hope you will all join together in helping us addrewhat is perhaps the greatest globalization challenge of our day: sustainability. As global citizens, one of the challenges that we all face is how to live a sustainable lifestyle in our homes, our workplaces, and our communities. As Tom Friedman of The New York Times recently noted, last year was by far the worst year for freedom in the world since the end of the Cold War. Almost four times as many states — 38 — declined in their freedom scores as improved.3 Strikingly, the least democratic countries in the world are

those who derive most of their revenues from oil. So as the price of fuel rises, and with it the price of food and housing, every community must cut its reliance on fossil fuels, not just to save money, not just to protect the environment from global warming, not just to promote our national security, but to promote the rule of law that is this law school’s mission. Sustainability begins at home. So we will start that conversation with Professor Dan Esty in his introductory lecture on environmental law on Sept. 19.The Law School is joining with Yale University’s sustainability efforts4 on a number of green initiatives designed to reduce the Law School’s carbon footprint and help us work together as a community of faculty, staff, and students toward a more sustainable future for our campus. Some of these ideas are small changes we can make right away, like turning off lights and computer monitors, carpooling or usingpublic transportation, or using mugs and silverware instead of disposable items.In addition, the Law School’s

“Green Team,” headed by Associate Director of Student Affairs Maura

Sichol-Sprague ( http://www.yhhpx.com ) and Director of Alumni

Affairs Abby Roth ( http://www.yhhpx.com ), is working on larger Law

2 John McCain, Op-ed, Financial Times (March 18, 2017);

http://www.yhhpx.com

3 Thomas L. Friedman, The Democracy Recession, New York Times (May 7, 2017).

4 Visit the website of the Yale Office of Sustainability ( http://www.yhhpx.com ), where you can take the Yale Sustainability Pledge, learn about Zip cars and other alternate forms of transportation on

campus, and browse the student-run sustainability blog for news, tips and event information. School initiatives along with the Yale Environmental Law Association. And through cutting-edge scholarship and practice, our students and faculty— including new Professors Tom Merrill and Doug Kysar and Visiting

Professor Jed Purdy—are helping to define policies that will create a more sustainable future. We will nearly double our physical footprint in 2017; our goal is to do so without increasing our overall carbon footprint. And so, this year our Office of Student Affairs and Human Resources will be coordinating what we will be calling our “Green Small Group Challenge,” whereby each small group will be asked to think of an innovative sustainable initiative that they could work on over the course of the fall semester and submit the idea for consideration. Our Human Resources office will pair interested staff with a small group, so that students and staff are working together on a green initiative. And at the end of the semester, a panel will judge the results based on the level of succeand innovation, and the winning small group will be invited to my home for a sustainable dinner.

These discussions about global responsibility and sustainability will ask you not just to think about these issues, but to decide where you stand on these issues. Which brings me to my third and final suggestion for your time here: Decide what you stand for.

For many of you, the principle of decision in your life thus far has been easy: Keep your options open. I am sure that many of you came to Law School precisely to keep your options open. In fact, if there is an epitaph for your generation, it will surely be: “They died with their options open.”

When I was graduating from college, heading off to England on a scholarship, a family friend came to me at graduation and congratulated me on my accomplishments. My older sister, who was standing next to me, waited politely until the friend left, and then she asked, “What accomplishments? You have no accomplishments. All you have done is go to school!” She said, “There are many people who have no schooling but have made genuine accomplishments; and there are many people with

world-claschooling but no accomplishments. And the difference between them is that those who have really accomplished something know what they stand for.”

The philosopher John Ruskin once said: “The highest reward for a person’s toil is not what they get for it, but what they become by it.” In the same way, the highest reward for your toil, as a law student, will be what kind of person and professional you become by it.That means asking: What do I stand for? What would you give your life for? For the next three years and beyond, you should ask yourself that question every day because as William Sloane Coffin once said, “If you stand for nothing, you’ll fall for

anything.”

Today, right now, is a good time to start asking: What do I stand for? Why did I come to law school? What kind of person and professional do I want to be? I know you wrote about this in your 175-word admissions essay; it was enough to get you in. But today is the day you start answering that question for real.

As you ponder that question, I hope you will stop asking, “What satisfies them?” and start asking, “What satisfies me?” I hope you will ask “What idea, what case, what cause, what client really touches my heart?”

And when that moment comes, seize that moment, take that chance, don’t play it safe. For on that day, you will decide, not what you won’t stand for, but what you actually do stand for.

It is not enough for lawyers to learn legal skills. You must ask: Who are my skills for? That is a question that you will face in the Introductions session on professional responsibility that you will have tomorrow with Professor Jean Koh Peters.

What will dawn on you is that here at Yale Law School, you will develop skills: skills that will give you power to throw people in jail, to save and destroy people’s lives, to make arguments that can save millions of dollars. But as we all know, with great power comes great responsibility. Each of these tools has its time and place. So use the awesome power of cross-examination to break down a hostile witness, but try to turn it off when you are talking to your roommate.

You will find at your disposal new and powerful tools that past generations of Yale students never had. In the age of the Internet, we are all connected.Please use these tools creatively, as passionate advocates, as our students are doing in their video website calling for 24 Hours for Darfur.

But please be just as careful not to abuse the great power of technology to attack one another online, to violate each other’s privacy, or to target your classmates for harassment and ridicule.Here, technology does not trump community. We are committed to challenging ideas, but to respecting one another.And remember that your professional career starts today; the choices you make while here will affect your professional standing. When the Committee on Character & Fitnedetermines whether to admit you to the bar, it will consider not just whether your actions have been legal, but also whether they have been just and moral. And you will leave a paper trail even if it never gets on paper: over the long term, every email you send, every blog you post, all the information you publicly disseminate about yourselves and others will stand as a permanent statement about your character.

So please stay mindful of another old Korean saying: “Never let your skill exceed your virtue.” In the next few years, your skill will grow quickly. But you must make sure that your virtue grows faster.

That brings me to my final suggestion. As you think about what you stand for, think about how you plan to serve the greater good. How will you serve the public interest as you see it? What kind of public service will you give?

Yale Law School is a school that has uniquely served the public interest and that has created lawyers who have uniquely shaped the public interest. As you go through these next three years, please ask yourselves: How will I devote my life’s energies toward serving my conception of the public interest?

Who will you serve? Who needs you the most?And if you feel privileged in your educational fortunes, as you should, don’t you have some duty—even while you are in law school—to serve the least privileged?

In other words, please consider: How should I live my life as a lawyer?That is a subject on which I will give a talk later this term. That talk will not give you answers, but it will explore that question, which is a question, I guarantee you, that will haunt you for the rest of your lives.

*****

So that, in a nutshell, is my message today.

How should you think about Yale Law School?

* As an adventure, not a competition.

* As a community of commitment to world-clascholarship,

professional excellence, and service to the greater good.

* As a place where people are committed to one another.

* As a place where you will study law from an interdisciplinary,

interprofessional, and international perspective and wrestle with

questions about globalization, sustainability, the profession, public

service.

* And as a place where you will try new things, learn new ideas,

combine theory and practice, and find what you stand for. A place

where you will gain new powers but also learn how to exercise those

powers responsibly.

Today you are entering the world of law talk. But those of you who

love music will recognize that just as great music is more than notes on a

page, the law is more than opinions in a book: it is a living, moving performance, full of drama, pathos, and passion. In law, as in life, there are heroes and there are villains. There are prophets and there are fools.

Today you start asking: Which will you be?

I ask you to be a leader and not just a follower, an architect and not a scrivener. I ask you to understand the role of law in a globalizing world, to pursue law as a noble profession, and to commit yourself to careers not of selfishness, but of service.

What we ask from you going forward is simple: Just give us your best—that is both the most you can give, and the least you can give. And we will give you our best in return.

As your Dean, I promise that this place values ideas, not ideology. We have no party line. So believe and argue passionately for whatever you believe. I promise that I will be scrupulously neutral on matters of politics and personal preference.

But let me warn you that I will not be neutral when it comes to questions of law and justice. I will not be neutral when governments— including our own—engage in torture. And I will not be neutral on questions of intolerance and discrimination. Because there is a human rights tradition that runs deep here at Yale Law School. Sixty years ago, a conservative Dean Eugene Rostow denounced the Japanese internment as a disaster when some of our most ardent civil libertarians supported it.The next decade,

former Dean and Judge Lou Pollak fought for Brown vs. Board shoulder to shoulder with Thurgood Marshall and his fellow Yale professor Charles Black. In the 70s, Professor Tom Emerson fought for a right to privacy here in Griswold v. Connecticut, and Professor Alex Bickel fought for the right

for newspapers to publish the Pentagon papers. And in your time, students and faculty have fought for the right of all students—gay and straight alike—to serve our country in its armed forces.

The Yale Law School you are entering has never been a law school that simply defends what is. Your law school—Yale Law School—has always been a law school that fights for what ought to be.

I have spent my career as a human rights lawyer. In that capacity, I have traveled the world. What I have learned is that there is bad news and there is good news. The bad news is that the suffering is real. It is not just on CNN. All over this world—in Sudan, in Iraq, in North Korea, in New Orleans, right here in New Haven, Connecticut—there is human suffering so real that it hurts to see it close up.

But, there is also good news. Lawyers do matter. Good lawyers matter more. One person can make a difference. A team of lawyers can beat an army. But to make that difference, you need not just energy but ideas, not just excellence but humanity, not just theory but practice.

What we teach here at Yale Law School is that excellence without humanity is worthless; that accomplishment without humility is tragic. And when you leave here, we want you to think of Yale, not just as the place you received your legal education, but as one of the places where you found your moral compass.

Twenty years ago, a young student who had recently begun the study of law wrote:

The study of law can be disappointing at times, a matter of

applying narrow rules and arcane procedure to an uncooperative

reality; a sort of glorified accounting that serves to regulate the affairs

of those who have power—and that all too often seeks to explain, to

those who do not, the ultimate wisdom and justneof their

conditions.

But that is not all the law is. The law is also memory; the law

also records a long-running conversation, a nation arguing with its

conscience.5

The writer was a young lawyer named Barack Obama.

So welcome to law’s conversation. Welcome to our community of

conscience. Welcome to the Yale Law School! We have so much to do

together.So let’s get started!

5 Barack Obama, Dreams from My Father 437 (1995):

MP3:跟苏力比比!!!

http://www.yhhpx.com

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